The 19th century is very important period in history of India. It was a period during which English educated Indians were determined to reform Indian culture, society and religion. The English educated Indians, sought inspiration from Vedas and Upanishad. They were also influenced by western scientific thoughts the Hindu leaders kike raja ram Mohan Rai, Debendranath Tagore, Keshav Chandra Sen, M.G Ranade, Atmaram Pandurangan, Swami Dayanand Saraswathi, swami Vivekananda and a host of others set out to reform Hindu religion and society. They condemned evils and abuses that had crept into Hinduism. The regality of caste system, sati, child marriage, unsociability, ideal worship, polytheism etc. they wanted to purge Hinduism of all these social evils and thus restore its pristine purity and ancient glory. The movement towards this goal is called, as “the Indian renaissance” was to prepare the ground for nationalism.
There were several caused which were responsible for Indian renaissance. The British colonial role:
- The Indians realized that a handful of E Englishmen conquered India. The leaders of Indian Renaissance wanted to create oneness by removing social evils and abuses of Indian society.
- The uniformity of British administration and political integration and transport and communication brought Indians together.
- Research on Indian history and study of Indian History created a sense of pride among Indians. The Christian missionaries played an important role in this respect.
- The most important cause is the study of English language and western sciences, which made Indians, develop human resources and modern scientific thought.
RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY-BRAHMA SAMAJ
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is the foremost leader of Indian Renaissance. He was born in 1774
In an orthodox Bengali Hindu family at a place called ’Radharpur’. His father was employed in the Kingdom of a local Nawab this father’s name is “Ramakanth Rai” He was a precautious child he had the knowledge of Sanskrit, Bengali, Hindu Persian, Arabic, English, French, Greek and Pique.
He studied Sanskrit literature, Hindu Philosophy and Arabic and Persian. He made a deep study of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.
He was employed in the English East India Company. He was in pursuit of a comparative study of different religions. He thus gave up his job.
In 1817, Ram Mohan Roy started the “Atmiya Sabah” in Calcutta were he preached against social events like the caste system, sati, child marriage and untouchability. He attacked ideal worship and polytheism.